Atthespecieslevelrecentobservedandmodelledclimatechangeimpactsshowthatclimaticchangehas already causedchanges to thedistribution of many plants and animals,leading to severe range contractions and theextinction of some species. Effects of climate change on plant biodiversity wikipedia. This report is an assessment of the effects of climate change on u. To reduce the effects of climate change on humans and biodiversity, there is a need not only to adapt to climate change impacts that cannot be avoided but also to mitigate climate change, that is, to reduce the sources and enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases ghgs. Biodiversity loss is the extinction of species plant or animal worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat. The intergovernmental panel on climate change ipcc is active socially choose your network.
Climate change represents a significant threat to global biodiversity and ecosystem. Any change in climate overtime, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. The relationship be tween biodiversity and climate change is a twoway street. Patterns of fish diversity globally, and their sensitivities to climate change, need to be understood to predict the future of biodiversity and fisheries. Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity. Climate research clim res i published february 19 potential impacts of climate change on ecosystems. With 196 parties, the convention has near universal participation among countries. Biodiversity and climate change a summary of impacts in the uk interagency climate change forum the mesh blue book a synopsis a blue book is intended to act as a guide and a source of reference to the subject matter. The convention seeks to address all threats to biodiversity and ecosystem services, including threats from climate change, through scientific. This book outlines the impact of climate change in four developing country regions. The effects of climate change on biodiversity in the united.
Climate change impacts in the terrestrial realm climate change is expected to have a significant influence on terrestrial biodiversity at all system levels ecosystem, species and genetic diversity. Yasmine fouad, assistant minister of environment, reflected in her opening remarks that biodiversity and ecosystem balance in a changing climate can only be maintained when related topics like food security, sustainable land management, protection of coral reefs, and the promotion of sustainable tourism are thought of in a holistic and. Climate change, keystone predation, and biodiversity loss article pdf available in science 3346059. Increasing habitat biodiversity under climate change by 2020. Ironically, maintaining biodiversity levels and functioning ecosystems is critical to ameliorating climate change. There are several methods and tools to assess the impact of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services. P rojected impacts of changes in mean climate and extreme climatic events on te r restrial including aquatic and marine ecosystems. Climate change may manifest itself as a shift in mean conditions, or as changes in the variance and frequency of extremes of climatic variables. Biodiversity is the amount of variety of life on earth. This intergovernmental panel on climate change ipcc technical paper on climate change and biodiversity is the fifth paper in the ipcc technical paper series and was produced in response to a request from the subsidiary body for scientific, technical and technological advice sbstta of the united nations convention on biological diversity. The chapter also illustrates the complex and interrelated nature of climate change impacts to biodiversity, ecosystems, and the services they provide. It reflects the number, variety and variability of living organisms and how these change from one location to another and over time. An authoritative analysis of the increasing speed and scale of climate change impacts on our biodiversity, together with an illuminating set of specific ways to use our biodiversity to address climate change.
Biodiversity and climate change european commission. Since climate change and biodiversity loss like so many other environmental i ssues we face are closely related, they are covered in the same guide. Naturebased solutions from the world bank portfolio will also contribute to solutions as nations and communities strive to adapt to climate change. For example, stem rust of wheat may become important in north india. Biodiversity and ecosystem services help us to adapt to and mitigate climate change. The ahteg produced a report at the end of 2009, which highlighted three main messages. Pdf impacts of climate change on marine biodiversity. Environmental conditions play a key role in defining the function and distribution of plants, in combination with other factors. Impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss and population on sustainable development in ethiopia. Africa, asia, latin america and small island developing states. As the planet warms quickly, mostly due to human activity, climate patterns in regions around the world will fluctuate. Climate change is any significant long term change in the expected pattern. The emphasis is on multiple human health benefits from biodiversity in particular. It brings together the most up to date credible sources, both national and international.
Climate change in the form of humancaused global warming is perhaps the most serious threat to species survival in the last 10,000 years. What is biodiversity and how does climate change affect it. Vulnerability assessments have particular meaning in the natural hazards and socioeconomic fields but are used more loosely and encompass a variety of methods in the field of biodiversity and climate change. Smallscale rooibos tea farmers in the northern cape, south africa local and indigenous knowledge informs innovative and sustainable land management practices, securing livelihoods and improving food security. The effects of global warming are seen in growing biodiversity. Abstract climate change is both a cause and an effect of biodiversity change. Biodiversity and climate change convention biological diversity. In this allnew sequel to the 2005 volume climate change and biodiversity, leading experts in the field summarize observed changes, assess what the future holds, and offer suggested responses.
Climate change and its consequences present one of the most important threats to biodiversity and the functions of ecosystems. Biodiversity and climate change in central america, mexico, and the dominican republic eric r. Climate change leading to adverse changes in temperature, precipitation and sea level will disturb the food, water and livelihood security systems in south asia and subsaharan africa, regions where already widespread hunger prevails. Climate change and biodiversity royal botanic gardens, kew. Nowadays, climate change poses a major threat to biodiversity, understood as the variability among living organisms from all sources 1, and it is expected that biodiversity in the coming decades. Ecosystems entail all the living things in a particular area as well as the nonliving things with which they interact, such as air, soil, water, and sunlight. It is also not clear that existing networks can be maintained for long enough to enable careful timeseries studies to be conducted. Pdf climate change and biodiversity download full pdf. Intrinsically important because of its contribution to the functioning of ecosystems, biodiversity the variation of life at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels of biological organization is difficult or impossible to recover or replace once it is eroded. Yes, climate change is an important driver of biodiversity. It summarised key climate change impacts and identified potential response options for primary sectors, namely water, agriculture and forestry, human health, marine fisheries, and biodiversity. Atthespecieslevelrecentobservedandmodelledclimatechangeimpactsshowthatclimaticchangehas already causedchanges to thedistribution of many plants and animals,leading to severe range contractions. Pdf climate change, keystone predation, and biodiversity loss. Climate change as a whole and global warming in particular are known to have a negative impact on biodiversity in three main ways.
There are many greenhouse gases, which form a thin layer in the atmosphere making the earths surface warmer day by day. About 60 gigatons of carbon gtc annually are taken up and. What are the main observed and projected impacts of climate change and biodiversity. Impacts of climate change on the future of biodiversity wiley online. Biological diversity on 22 may 2007under the theme climate change and biodiversity.
The recent studies discussed here attempt to quantify some of the uncertainty in these predictions. Some of the impacts of climate change may be sudden, but in many cases societies will have some years to adapt their management of biodiversity as conditions change. Biodiversity and climate change in the oceans climate. Biodiversity and climate change secretariat of the convention on. Along with anthropogenic dispersion, climate change is the main driver of change in the geographical distribution of both beneficial and harmful species, crops, livestock, harvested wild species, pests, predators and pathogens. Predicting the fate of biodiversity in response to climate change combined with habitat fragmentation is a serious undertaking fraught with caveats and complexities. Convention on biological diversity international day for biological diversity biodiversity and climate change 1 preface by the executive secretary. Abstracts of posters presented at the 14th meeting of the subsidiary body on scientific, technical and technological advice of the convention on biological diversity, 1021 may 2010, nairobi, kenya. Biodiversity, climate change, and adaptation world bank. Ecosystems, ecosystem services, and biodiversity fourth. Engage with the ipcc there are many ways to be involved and participate in the ipcc world.
Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Pdf on sep 25, 2016, s k palita and others published climate change and its impact on biodiversity find, read and cite all the. Such changes are already altering the composition of ecological communities, but beyond. It also examines the relationship between biodiversity and adaptation to a changing climate. Biodiversity and climate change international day for biological diversity convention. Climate change and its impact on ecosystem services and biodiversity in arid and semiarid zones is an essential reference source that studies the effects of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services in dry regions and examines various strategic local, national, and international policy developments to help overcome these impacts. Pdf the earths climate is changing and the impacts are already being felt by biodiversity and wildlife habitats across the planet. Climate change unfccc introduced targeted measures such as reducing emissions from. Biodiversity includes diversity within species genetic diversity, between species species diversity, and between ecosystems ecosystem diversity. Climate change and biodiversity ipcc technical paper v. Climate change 375 main messages there is wide recognition that humaninduced climate change is a serious environmental and development issue. Biodiversity, climate change and sustainable development. Biodiversity, the variety of life found in a place on earth or, often, the total variety of life on earth.
The latter phenomenon can be temporary or permanent, depending on whether the environmental degradation that leads to the loss is reversible through ecological restoration ecological resilience or. Guidance on integrating climate change and biodiversity. They currently absorb roughly half of manmade carbon emissions. Climate change is amongst the most important determinants of change in the distribution and abundance of species in both managed ecosystems such as agriculture, production forests, cities and many coastal zones, and natural terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Biodiversity is a contraction of biological diversity. Climate change as a threat to biodiversity climate change affects biodiversity causing complex interaction across sectors, that s economic, energy, natural resources, water, social and health services. They are therefore a crucial part of our effort to combat climate change. Ecosystems and biodiversity will be forced to fluctuate along with the regional climate, and that could harm many species. Naturebased solutions from the world bank portfolio. To help species and ecosystems cope with climate change, oeh developed priorities for biodiversity adaptation to climate change pdf 1mb. Interlinkages between biodiversity and climate change cbd contents i. Climate change the effects of climate change on biodiversity are already evident in the uk, and with continued climate change, are expected to increase.
Biodiversity and health in the face of climate change. Interlinkages between biodiversity and climate change. The presence of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapors are responsible for global warming. Guidance on integrating climate change and biodiversity into. Climate change is the shift or abnormal change in climate patterns. The second phase will use an integrated assessment approach and. Secretariat of the convention on biological diversity 2010. This chapter presents additional evidence for climate change impacts to biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services, reflecting increased confidence in the findings reported in nca3. So they are hardest hit by its loss, especially when coupled with climate change which in turn affects and is potentially affected by biodiversity. Biodiversity encompasses the genetic variety within each species and the variety of ecosystems that species create. It is one of a series of 21 synthesis and assessment products being produced under the auspices of the u. The impact of climate change on europes biodiversity can already be.
Biodiversity and climate change yale university press. Firstly, increases in temperatures are detrimental to a number of organisms, especially those in sensitive habitats such as coral reefs and rainforests. Does the concept of ecosystem services promote synergies between european strategies for climate change and biodiversity. Pdf efforts to elucidate the effect of climate change on biodiversity with detailed data sets and refined models reach novel conclusions. To date, biodiversity loss has been treated only as an environmental problem. Climate change affects the living world, including people, through changes in ecosystems, biodiversity, and ecosystem services.
Impacts of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem. The role that biodiversity plays in mitigating and adapting to climate change iv. Climate change is also an effect of land uses that generate. Due to the increased temperature primary productivity production, the process is affected, which impacted on the. This postnote explores the observed and future impacts of climate change on biodiversity. It is the number of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Impact of climate change on biodiversity springerlink. Loss of biodiversity and climate change as presented in. Biodiversity, ecosystem services, and climate change. It includes organisms from earths vastly different ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, coral reefs, grasslands, tundra, and polar ice caps. Many studies in recent years have investigated the effects of climate change on the future of biodiversity. The ultimate goal of the united nations framework convention on climate change is stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent.
Climate change may manifest itself as a shift in mean conditions, or as changes in the variance and frequency of extremes of climatic variables as shown in the inset figure from ipcc, 2001b in figure 1. Intrinsically important because of its contribution to the functioning of ecosystems, biodiversity the variation of life at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels of biological organization is difficult or impossible to recover or replace once it. Biodiversity, climate change and sustainable development biodiversity, climate change and sustainable development 9 success story 5. The effects of climate change on agriculture, land.
United nations paris agreement on climate change for globally. Climate change significantly influences changes in ecological phenomena and processes, such as species distribution and phenology, thus accelerating the rate of species extinction or prosperity. The stress on biodiversity is far beyond the levels imposed by the natural global climatic changes occurring in the recent evolutionary past. Pdf biodiversity, climate change, and ecosystem services. Pdf global climate change and biodiversity researchgate. Increasing our understanding of the effects of climate change on biodiversity, and developing practical ways of mitigating such effects, are critical to limit the damage. Ecosystems and biodiversity national climate assessment. Climate change is not only altering ecological systems, biodiversity and ecosystem services, but poses also fundamental challenges for managers, policymakers and other actors in developing strategies to respond to uncertainties in projected climate change impacts, and possible nonlinear ecosystem responses. Combating climate change and biodiversity loss in a hot spot megadiversity country. Climate change and biodiversity european commission. Addressing the impacts of climate change on biodiversity will require a longterm effort and new ways of thinking. Climate change risks for the biodiversity sector in lesotho. From extinction risk to ocean acidification, from the future of. A common measure of this variety, called species richness, is the count of species in an area.
Patterns of biodiversity vary by depth, habitat type and region, with numerous hotspots of diversity of particular taxa, such as fishes. The benefits of limiting climate change and sustainably managing ecosystems far exceed. In this booklet, we highlight some of the causes of climate change and its impacts on biodiversity, as well as the various links between biodiversity and climate change. This transdisciplinary book will attract a wide audience interested in biodiversity, ecology, resource management, public health, psychology, urban planning, and landscape architecture. Impacts on ecosystems and human wellbeing abstract distributions of earths species are changing at accelerating rates, increasingly driven by humanmediated climate change. From agricultural and ecological points of view, lesotho can be divided up into four agroecological zones figure 1, namely, mountains 59% of lesotho, foothills 15%, lowlands 17% and the senqu river valley 9%. In order to address the impacts of climate change in a coordinated manner, the project aimed to undertake vulnerability analyses of madagascars marine and terrestrial environments. At the most basic level of biodiversity, climate change is able to decrease genetic diversity of populations due to directional selection and rapid migration, which. Handbook of climate change and biodiversity walter leal. The effects of climate change on biodiversity in the.1076 926 640 815 930 1070 789 1001 1208 176 1181 1229 1012 113 854 293 337 498 752 548 1417 61 1486 1073 755 41 941 1090 1032 1241 1332